## Kindergarten

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.K.10**Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.K.1**With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.1.2.b**Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.K.2**Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.1.3.b**Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.1.3.g**Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

**LF.K.2.f**Combinan dos sílabas para formar palabras bisílabas que les son familiares: ma + no = mano; ma + ma = mamá; ma + pa = mapa; sa + po = sapo; so + pa = sopa.

**CCSS.Math.Content.K.CC.B.5**Count to answer “how many?” questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.

**CCSS.Math.Content.K.CC.B.4.b**Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.

**CCSS.Math.Content.K.CC.A.3**Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

**CCSS.Math.Content.K.CC.B.4.a**When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.

**K-2-ETS1-1**Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

**K-2-ETS1-2**Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem.

**K-2-ETS1-3**Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs.

**K-2-ETS1-1**Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

**K-2-ETS1-2**Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem.

**K-2-ETS1-3**Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs.

**DCI.K-2-ETS1.A.1**A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions. (K-2-ETS1-1)

**DCI.K-2-ETS1.A.2**Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)

**DCI.K-2-ETS1.A.3**Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem. (K-2-ETS1-1)

**DCI.K-2-ETS1.B.1**Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. (K-2-ETS1-2)

**DCI.K-2-ETS1.C.1**Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. (K-2-ETS1-3)

**SEP.K-2.A.1**Ask questions based on observations to find more information about the natural and/or designed world(s).

**SEP.K-2.A.2**Define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

**SEP.K-2.B.2**Develop a simple model based on evidence to represent a proposed object or tool.

**SEP.K-2.D.2**Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended.

**CCC.STSE.K-2.A.1**People encounter questions about the natural world every day.

**CCC.K-2.F.1**The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s).

## 1st Grade

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.1.1**Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.1.3**Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.1.7**Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.1.10**With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.1.1**Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.1.1.a**Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.1.7**Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.1.10**With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1.

**AE.1.1.a**Siguen las reglas acordadas para participar en conversaciones (por ejemplo: escuchar a los demás con atención, hablar uno a la vez sobre los temas y textos que se están tratando).

**LL.1.10**Con sugerencias y apoyo, leen prosa y poesía de complejidad apropiada para el primer grado.

**LL.1.7**Usan las ilustraciones y detalles de un cuento para describir a los personajes, ambientes o acontecimientos.

**LL.1.1**Hacen y contestan preguntas sobre los detalles clave de un texto.

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.NBT.B.2.b**The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.MD.C.4**Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.OA.D.7**Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false.

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.OA.B.4**Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem.

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.NBT.A.1**Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral.

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.OA.B.3**Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract.

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.NBT.B.2.a**10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones – called a “ten.”

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.OA.C.5**Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.OA.D.8**Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers.

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.OA.A.1**Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.NBT.B.2.c**The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones).

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.OA.C.6**Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.NBT.B.3**Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.

**CCSS.Math.Content.1.OA.A.2**Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**1-PS4-1**Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate.

**1-PS4-4**Use tools and materials to design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance.

**1-PS4-1**Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate.

**1-PS4-4**Use tools and materials to design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance.

**DCI.1-PS4.A.1**Sound can make matter vibrate, and vibrating matter can make sound. (1-PS4-1)

**DCI.1-PS4.C.1**People also use a variety of devices to communicate (send and receive information) over long distances. (1- PS4-4)

**DCI.K-2-ETS1.A.1**A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions. (K-2-ETS1-1)

**DCI.K-2-ETS1.A.2**Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)

**DCI.K-2-ETS1.A.3**Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem. (K-2-ETS1-1)

**DCI.K-2-ETS1.B.1**Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. (K-2-ETS1-2)

**DCI.K-2-ETS1.C.1**Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. (K-2-ETS1-3)

**SEP.K-2.C.2**Plan and conduct investigations collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer a question.

**SEP.NOS.K-2.A.1**Science investigations begin with a question.

**SEP.K-2.A.2**Define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

**SEP.K-2.B.2**Develop a simple model based on evidence to represent a proposed object or tool.

**SEP.K-2.F.1**Make observations (firsthand or from media) to construct an evidence-based account for natural phenomena.

**SEP.K-2.F.2**Use tools and materials provided to design and build a device that solves a specific problem or a solution to a specific problem.

**SEP.K-2.H.3**Communicate solutions with others in oral and/or written forms using models and/or drawings that provide detail about scientific ideas.

**CCC.K-2.B.2**Simple tests can be designed to gather evidence to support or refute student ideas about causes.

**CCC.STSE.K-2.B.1**People depend on various technologies in their lives; human life would be very different without technology.

## 2nd Grade

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.2.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.2.7**Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.2.1**Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.2.1**Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.2.1.a**Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.2.6**Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.2.4**Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.

**LL.2.1**Hacen y contestan preguntas tales como: quién, qué, dónde, cuándo, por qué y cómo, para demostrar la comprensión de los detalles clave de un texto.

**L.2.6**Usan las palabras y las frases que han aprendido a través de conversaciones, al leer y al escuchar cuando se les lee, o al responder a los textos, incluyendo el uso de adjetivos y adverbios para describir (ejemplo: Cuando otros niños están contentos yo también me siento contento).

**LL.2.4**Describen cómo las palabras y frases (por ejemplo: ritmo, aliteración, rimas, frases repetidas) proveen ritmo y significado en un cuento, poema o canción.

**AE.2.1.a**Siguen las reglas acordadas para participar en conversaciones (por ejemplo: tomar la palabra de una manera respetuosa, escuchar a los demás con atención, hablar uno a la vez sobre los temas y textos que se están tratando).

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.MD.C.7**Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m.

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.NBT.A.1.a**100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens – called a “hundred.”

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.OA.C.3**Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends.

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.NBT.B.5**Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.MD.C.8**Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately.

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.OA.B.2**Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies. By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers.

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.NBT.A.2**Count within 1000; skip-count by 5s, 10s, and 100s.

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.OA.C.4**Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns; write an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends.

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.NBT.B.9**Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations.

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.MD.D.10**Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph.

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.NBT.A.4**Compare two three-digit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.OA.A.1**Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.NBT.B.8**Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100–900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number 100–900.

**CCSS.Math.Content.2.NBT.A.3**Read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.2.1**Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.2.1.a**Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.2.6**Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.2.4**Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.

**LL.2.1**Hacen y contestan preguntas tales como: quién, qué, dónde, cuándo, por qué y cómo, para demostrar la comprensión de los detalles clave de un texto.

**L.2.6**Usan las palabras y las frases que han aprendido a través de conversaciones, al leer y al escuchar cuando se les lee, o al responder a los textos, incluyendo el uso de adjetivos y adverbios para describir (ejemplo: Cuando otros niños están contentos yo también me siento contento).

**LL.2.4**Describen cómo las palabras y frases (por ejemplo: ritmo, aliteración, rimas, frases repetidas) proveen ritmo y significado en un cuento, poema o canción.

**AE.2.1.a**Siguen las reglas acordadas para participar en conversaciones (por ejemplo: tomar la palabra de una manera respetuosa, escuchar a los demás con atención, hablar uno a la vez sobre los temas y textos que se están tratando).

## 3rd Grade

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.3.1**Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.3.2**Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.3.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.3.3**Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.3.5**Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.3.5**Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.3.2**Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.3.1**Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.3.3**Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.3.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**LL.3.10**Al final del año escolar, leen y comprenden la literatura de forma independiente y competente, incluyendo cuentos, obras de teatro y poemas, en el nivel superior de la banda de complejidad del texto para los grados 2–3.

**LL.3.3**Describen los personajes de un cuento (ejemplo: sus características, motivaciones o sentimientos) y explican cómo sus acciones contribuyen a la secuencia de los acontecimientos.

**LL.3.2**Recuentan cuentos, incluyendo fábulas, cuentos populares y mitos de diversas culturas; identifican el mensaje principal, lección o moraleja y explican cómo se transmite en los detalles clave del texto.

**LL.3.5**Se refieren a partes de los cuentos, teatro y poemas al escribir o hablar sobre un texto, utilizando términos como capítulo, escena y estrofa; describen cómo cada parte sucesiva se basa en secciones anteriores.

**LL.3.1**Hacen y contestan preguntas para demostrar comprensión de un texto, haciendo referencia explícita del texto como base para las respuestas.

**CCSS.Math.Content.3.OA.A.2**Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each.

**CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.A.1**Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.

**CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.C.6**Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units).

**CCSS.Math.Content.3.OA.A.3**Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**CCSS.Math.Content.3.OA.B.5**Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide.

**CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.C.7.d**Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into non-overlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.

**CCSS.Math.Content.3.OA.D.8**Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

**CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.C.7.b**Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole-number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent whole-number products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning.

**CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.D.8**Solve real world and mathematical problems involving perimeters of polygons, including finding the perimeter given the side lengths, finding an unknown side length, and exhibiting rectangles with the same perimeter and different areas or with the same area and different perimeters.

**CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.C.5.b**A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by 𝘯 unit squares is said to have an area of 𝘯 square units.

**CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.C.7.a**Find the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths.

**CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.C.7.c**Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths 𝘢 and 𝘣 + 𝘤 is the sum of 𝘢 × 𝘣 and 𝘢 × 𝘤. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning.

**3-5-ETS1-1**Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.

**3-5-ETS1-2**Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

**3-5-ETS1-3**Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved.

**3-5-ETS1-1**Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.

**3-5-ETS1-2**Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

**3-5-ETS1-3**Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved.

**DCI.3-5-ETS1.A.1**Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. (3-5-ETS1-1)

**DCI.3-5-ETS1.B.2**Research on a problem should be carried out before beginning to design a solution. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. (3-5-ETS1-2)

**DCI.3-5-ETS1.B.3**At whatever stage, communicating with peers about proposed solutions is an important part of the design process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs. (3-5-ETS1-2)

**DCI.3-5-ETS1.B.4**Tests are often designed to identify failure points or difficulties, which suggest the elements of the design that need to be improved. (3-5-ETS1-3)

**DCI.3-5-ETS1.C.1**Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints. (3-5-ETS1-3)

**DCI.3-5-ETS1.B.1**Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. (secondary to 4-ESS3-2)

**SEP.3-5.A.2**Define a simple design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process, or system and includes several criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.

**SEP.3-5.F.4**Generate and compare multiple solutions to a problem based on how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the design solution.

**SEP.3-5.C.1**Plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, using fair tests in which variables are controlled and the number of trials considered.

**SEP.3-5.B.1**Develop a model using an analogy, example, or abstract representation to describe a scientific principle or design solution.

**SEP.3-5.E.1**Describe, measure, estimate, and/or graph quantities (e.g., area, volume, weight, time) to address scientific and engineering questions and problems.

**SEP.3-5.F.3**Apply scientific ideas to solve design problems.

**CCC.STSE.3-5.B.2**People’s needs and wants change over time, as do their demands for new and improved technologies.

## 4th Grade

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.4**Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.4**Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1.d**Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1.a**Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.4.3.a**Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1.d**Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.10**By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1.a**Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.3**Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.4**Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.4.1**Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.4**Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.4.3.a**Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.10**Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**LL.4.3**Describen en profundidad un personaje, escenario o acontecimiento en un cuento u obra de teatro, basándose en detalles específicos del texto (ejemplo: los pensamientos, palabras o acciones de un personaje).

**L.4.3.a**Eligen palabras y frases para transmitir ideas con precisión.

**EA.4.4**Hacen un informe sobre un tema o texto, cuentan un cuento o relatan una experiencia de forma organizada con hechos apropiados y detalles descriptivos relevantes para sustentar las ideas o temas principales, hablando con claridad y a un ritmo comprensible.

**LI.4.10**Al final del año escolar, leen y comprenden textos informativos de forma competente, incluyendo textos de historia/estudios sociales, ciencias y textos técnicos, en el nivel superior de la banda de complejidad del texto para los grados 4–5, con enseñanza guiada según sea necesario.

**E.4.10**Escriben habitualmente durante períodos prolongados (tiempo para la investigación, reflexión y revisión) y períodos cortos (una sola sesión o uno o dos días) para una serie de tareas.

**EA.4.1.d**Revisan las ideas clave expresadas y explican sus propias ideas y comprensión tomando en cuenta lo previamente hablado.

**EA.4.1.a**Vienen preparados a las conversaciones, después de haber leído o estudiado el material necesario; se basan explícitamente en esa preparación y cualquier otra información conocida sobre el tema para explorar las ideas que se discuten.

**E.4.4**Redactan textos claros y coherentes en los cuales el desarrollo y organización son adecuados a la tarea, el propósito y la audiencia.

**LL.4.1**Se refieren a los detalles y ejemplos en un texto para explicar lo que dice explícitamente el texto y al hacer inferencias del mismo.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.C.7**Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.B.4**Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is prime or composite.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.A.2**Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.A.3**Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.NBT.A.2**Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.A.2**Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.C.5.b**An angle that turns through 𝘯 one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of 𝘯 degrees.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.A.1**Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.NBT.A.3**Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.A.3**Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.NBT.B.4**Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.C.5**Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.C.6**Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.NBT.B.5**Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.NBT.B.6**Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.C.5.a**An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “one-degree angle,” and can be used to measure angles.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.C.6**Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.NBT.A.1**Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.A.1**Explain why a fraction 𝘢/𝘣 is equivalent to a fraction (𝘯 × 𝘢)/(𝘯 × 𝘣) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.

**CCSS.Math.Content.4.OA.C.5**Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself..

**4-PS3-1**Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object.

**4-PS3-2**Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.

**4-PS3-3**Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide.

**4-PS3-4**Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.

**4-PS3-1**Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object.

**4-PS3-2**Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.

**4-PS3-3**Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide.

**4-PS3-4**Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.

**DCI.4-PS3.A.1**The faster a given object is moving, the more energy it possesses. (4- PS3-1)

**DCI.4-PS3.A.2**Energy can be moved from place to place by moving objects or through sound, light, or electric currents. (4-PS3-2), (4-PS3-3)

**DCI.4-PS3.B.2**Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air; as a result, the air gets heated and sound is produced. (4-PS3-2), (4-PS3-3)

**DCI.4-PS3.B.3**Energy can also be transferred from place to place by electric currents, which can then be used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light. The currents may have been produced to begin with by transforming the energy of motion into electrical energy. (4-PS3-2), (4- PS3-4)

**DCI.4-PS3.B.1**Light also transfers energy from place to place. (4-PS3-2)

**DCI.4-PS3.C.1**When objects collide, the contact forces transfer energy so as to change the objects’ motions. (4-PS3-3)

**DCI.4-PS3.D.1**The expression “produce energy” typically refers to the conversion of stored energy into a desired form for practical use. (4-PS3-4)

**DCI.3-5-ETS1.A.1**Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. (3-5-ETS1-1)

**SEP.3-5.A.1**Ask questions that can be investigated and predict reasonable outcomes based on patterns such as cause and effect relationships.

**SEP.3-5.C.2**Make observations and/or measurements to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence for an explanation of a phenomenon or test a design solution.

**SEP.3-5.F.3**Apply scientific ideas to solve design problems.

**SEP.3-5.F.1**Use evidence (e.g., measurements, observations, patterns) to construct or support an explanation or design a solution to a problem.

**CCC.3-5.E.2**Energy can be transferred in various ways and between objects.

**CCC.NOS.3-5.B.1**Science affects everyday life.

## 5th Grade

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.3**Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.1**Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.6**Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.6**Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.1**Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.5.3**Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).

**LL.5.6**Describen cómo el punto de vista de un narrador o locutor influye en la forma de describir los acontecimientos.

**LL.5.10**Al final del año escolar, leen y comprenden la literatura de forma independiente y competente, incluyendo cuentos, obras de teatro y poemas, en el nivel superior de la banda de complejidad del texto para los grados 4–5.

**LL.5.3**Comparan y contrastan dos o más personajes, escenarios o acontecimientos en un cuento u obra de teatro, basándose en detalles específicos del texto (ejemplo: cómo interactúan los personajes).

**LL.5.1**Citan correctamente un texto al explicar lo que dice explícitamente y al hacer inferencias del mismo.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.B.3**Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (𝘢/𝘣 = 𝘢 ÷ 𝘣). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.A.1**Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.MD.C.3.a**A cube with side length 1 unit, called a “unit cube,” is said to have “one cubic unit” of volume, and can be used to measure volume.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.B.7.c**Solve real world problems involving division of unit fractions by non-zero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.MD.C.5.c**Recognize volume as additive. Find volumes of solid figures composed of two non-overlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.MD.A.1**Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world problems.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.B.5.a**Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.B.6**Solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.A.2**Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions to estimate mentally and assess the reasonableness of answers.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.NBT.B.6**Find whole-number quotients of whole numbers with up to four-digit dividends and two-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.NBT.A.1**Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.B.7.a**Interpret division of a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number, and compute such quotients.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.B.4.b**Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.B.4.a**Interpret the product (𝘢/𝘣) × 𝘲 as a parts of a partition of 𝘲 into 𝘣 equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations 𝘢 × 𝘲 ÷ 𝘣.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.NBT.B.5**Fluently multiply multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.MD.C.4**Measure volumes by counting unit cubes, using cubic cm, cubic in, cubic ft, and improvised units.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.MD.C.5.b**Apply the formulas 𝘝 = 𝘭 × 𝘸 × 𝘩 and 𝘝 = 𝘣 × 𝘩 for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with whole-number edge lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.MD.C.5.a**Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with whole-number side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent threefold whole-number products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.OA.A.2**Write simple expressions that record calculations with numbers, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.NBT.A.2**Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use whole-number exponents to denote powers of 10.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.MD.B.2**Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots.

**CCSS.Math.Content.5.OA.A.1**Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols.

**3-5-ETS1-1**Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.

**3-5-ETS1-2**Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

**3-5-ETS1-3**Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved.

**3-5-ETS1-1****3-5-ETS1-2****3-5-ETS1-3****DCI.5-ESS3.C.1**Human activities in agriculture, industry, and everyday life have had major effects on the land, vegetation, streams, ocean, air, and even outer space. But individuals and communities are doing things to help protect Earth’s resources and environments. (5-ESS3-1)

**DCI.3-5-ETS1.A.1**Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. (3-5-ETS1-1)

**DCI.3-5-ETS1.B.2**Research on a problem should be carried out before beginning to design a solution. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. (3-5-ETS1-2)

**DCI.3-5-ETS1.C.1**Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints. (3-5-ETS1-3)

**DCI.3-5-ETS1.B.1**Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. (secondary to 4-ESS3-2)

**DCI.3-5-ETS1.B.3**At whatever stage, communicating with peers about proposed solutions is an important part of the design process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs. (3-5-ETS1-2)

**DCI.3-5-ETS1.B.4**Tests are often designed to identify failure points or difficulties, which suggest the elements of the design that need to be improved. (3-5-ETS1-3)

**SEP.3-5.A.2**Define a simple design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process, or system and includes several criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.

**SEP.3-5.C.1**Plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, using fair tests in which variables are controlled and the number of trials considered.

**SEP.3-5.F.4**Generate and compare multiple solutions to a problem based on how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the design solution.

**SEP.3-5.B.3**Use a model to test cause and effect relationships or interactions concerning the functioning of a natural or designed system.

**SEP.3-5.D.2**Analyze and interpret data to make sense of phenomena, using logical reasoning, mathematics, and/or computation.

**SEP.3-5.F.3**Apply scientific ideas to solve design problems.

**SEP.NOS.3-5.A.1**Science investigations use a variety of methods, tools, and techniques.

**CCC.STSE.3-5.B.2**People’s needs and wants change over time, as do their demands for new and improved technologies.

**CCC.STSE.3-5.B.1**Engineers improve existing technologies or develop new ones to increase their benefits, decrease known risks, and meet societal demands.

**CCC.NOS.3-5.B.2**Most scientists and engineers work in teams.

## 6th Grade

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.10**Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.7**Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.10**Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.10****CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.7**Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.6.1**Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

**LL.6.1**Citan evidencias textuales para sustentar el análisis de lo que dice explícitamente el texto, así como lo que se infiere del mismo.

**LL.6.10**Al final del año escolar, leen y comprenden competentemente textos literarios, como cuentos, obras de teatro y poemas, correspondientes al nivel superior de complejidad de textos para los grados 6–8, con enseñanza guiada según sea necesario.

**CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.C.6.a**Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself, e.g., -(-3) = 3, and that 0 is its own opposite.

**CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.C.7.c**Understand the absolute value of a rational number as its distance from 0 on the number line; interpret absolute value as magnitude for a positive or negative quantity in a real-world situation.

**CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.C.5**Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation.

**CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.C.7.a**Interpret statements of inequality as statements about the relative position of two numbers on a number line diagram.

**CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.C.7.b**Write, interpret, and explain statements of order for rational numbers in real-world contexts.

**CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.C.6.c**Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane.

**CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.C.7.d**Distinguish comparisons of absolute value from statements about order.

**HS-LS1-2**Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.

**HS-LS1-3**Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.

**HS-ETS1-2**Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.

**HS-ETS1-3**Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.

**HS-LS1-2**Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.

**HS-LS1-3**Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.

**HS-ETS1-2**Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.

**HS-ETS1-3**Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.

**DCI.HS-LS1.A.3**Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. (HS-LS1-2)

**DCI.HS-LS1.A.4**Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system’s internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as external conditions change within some range. Feedback mechanisms can encourage (through positive feedback) or discourage (negative feedback) what is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)

**DCI.HS-ETS1.C.1**Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (tradeoffs) may be needed. (HS-ETS1-2)

**DCI.HS-ETS1.B.1**When evaluating solutions it is important to take into account a range of constraints including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts. (HS-ETS1-3)

**SEP.HS.B.1**Develop, revise, and/or use a model based on evidence to illustrate and/or predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

**SEP.HS.C.1**Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly.

**SEP.NOS.HS.A.3**Scientific inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that include: logical thinking, precision, open-mindedness, objectivity, skepticism, replicability of results, and honest and ethical reporting of findings.

**CCC.HS.D.2**Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions—including energy, matter, and information flows—within and between systems at different scales.

**CCC.HS.G.3**Feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or destabilize a system.

**CCC.STSE.HS.B.3**New technologies can have deep impacts on society and the environment, including some that were not anticipated.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.9**Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.6-8.8**Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.6**Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.4**Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.7**Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.5**Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.2**Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.6-8.9**Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.8**Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.

**D2.Eco.8.6-8**Explain how external benefits and costs influence market outcomes.

**D3.4.6-8**Develop claims and counterclaims while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both.

**D2.His.2.6-8**Classify series of historical events and developments as examples of change and/or continuity.

**D2.His.13.6-8**Evaluate the relevancy and utility of a historical source based on information such as maker, date, place of origin, intended audience, and purpose.

**D2.His.9.6-8**Classify the kinds of historical sources used in a secondary interpretation.

**D2.Geo.1.6-8**Construct maps to represent and explain the spatial patterns of cultural and environmental characteristics.

**D2.His.1.6-8**Analyze connections among events and developments in broader historical contexts.

**D2.Geo.2.6-8**Use maps, satellite images, photographs, and other representations to explain relationships between the locations of places and regions, and changes in their environmental characteristics.

**D3.2.6-8**Evaluate the credibility of a source by determining its relevance and intended use.

**D2.Geo.3.6-8**Use paper based and electronic mapping and graphing techniques to represent and analyze spatial patterns of different environmental and cultural characteristics.

**D2.His.6.6-8**Analyze how people’s perspectives influenced what information is available in the historical sources they created.

**D2.His.14.6-8**Explain multiple causes and effects of events and developments in the past.

**D2.Eco.1.6-8**Explain how economic decisions affect the well-being of individuals, businesses, and society.

**D4.5.6-8**Critique the structure of explanations.

**D2.His.3.6-8**Use questions generated about individuals and groups to analyze why they, and the developments they shaped, are seen as historically significant.

**D4.7.6-8**Assess their individual and collective capacities to take action to address local, regional, and global problems, taking into account a range of possible levers of power, strategies, and potential outcomes.

**D4.4.6-8**Critique arguments for credibility.

**D2.Eco.2.6-8**Evaluate alternative approaches or solutions to current economic issues in terms of benefits and costs for different groups and society as a whole.

**D4.8.6-8**Apply a range of deliberative and democratic procedures to make decisions and take action in their classrooms and schools, and in out-of-school civic contexts.

**D2.Civ.11.6-8**Differentiate among procedures for making decisions in the classroom, school, civil society, and local, state, and national government in terms of how civic purposes are intended.

## 7th Grade

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.7.3**Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.7.1.b**Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.7.3**Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.7.6**Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.7.1**Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.6.1.c**

Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.8**Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.5**Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.

**AE.6.1.c**Plantean y responden a preguntas específicas con profundidad y detalle, al hacer comentarios que contribuyen al tema, texto o asunto que se discute.

**LH.6-8.8**Distinguen en un texto lo que es un hecho, una opinión y un juicio fundamentado en razones.

**LI.6.5**Analizan cómo una determinada oración, párrafo, capítulo o sección se ajusta a la estructura global de un texto y cómo contribuye al desarrollo de las ideas.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.NS.A.2.c**Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide rational numbers.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.RP.A.2.d**Explain what a point (𝘹, 𝘺) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in terms of the situation, with special attention to the points (0, 0) and (1, 𝘳) where 𝘳 is the unit rate.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.NS.A.1.c**Understand subtraction of rational numbers as adding the additive inverse, 𝘱 – 𝘲 = 𝘱 + (–𝘲). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number line is the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in real-world contexts.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.RP.A.2.b**Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.G.A.1**Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.EE.B.4.b**Solve word problems leading to inequalities of the form 𝘱𝘹 + 𝘲 > 𝘳 or 𝘱𝘹 + 𝘲 < 𝘳, where 𝘱, 𝘲, and 𝘳 are specific rational numbers. Graph the solution set of the inequality and interpret it in the context of the problem.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.NS.A.1.b**Understand 𝘱 + 𝘲 as the number located a distance |𝘲| from 𝘱, in the positive or negative direction depending on whether 𝘲 is positive or negative. Show that a number and its opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Interpret sums of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.NS.A.2.d**Convert a rational number to a decimal using long division; know that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in 0s or eventually repeats.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.NS.A.2.b**Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not zero, and every quotient of integers (with non-zero divisor) is a rational number. If 𝘱 and 𝘲 are integers, then –(𝘱/𝘲) = (–𝘱)/𝘲 = 𝘱/(–𝘲). Interpret quotients of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.NS.A.1.d**Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract rational numbers.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.EE.B.3**Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.RP.A.3**Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.RP.A.1**Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.EE.B.4.a**Solve word problems leading to equations of the form 𝘱𝘹 + 𝘲 = 𝘳 and 𝘱(𝘹 + 𝘲) = 𝘳, where 𝘱, 𝘲, and 𝘳 are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently. Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the sequence of the operations used in each approach.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.EE.A.1**Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.NS.A.3**Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.G.B.5**Use facts about supplementary, complementary, vertical, and adjacent angles in a multi-step problem to write and solve simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.RP.A.2.a**Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.NS.A.1.a**Describe situations in which opposite quantities combine to make 0.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.EE.A.2**Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related.

**CCSS.Math.Content.7.RP.A.2.c**Represent proportional relationships by equations.

**HS-LS1-2**Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.

**HS-LS1-3**Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.

**HS-ETS1-2**Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.

**HS-ETS1-3**Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.

**HS-LS1-2****HS-LS1-3**Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.

**HS-ETS1-2****HS-ETS1-3****DCI.HS-LS1.A.3**Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. (HS-LS1-2)

**DCI.HS-LS1.A.4**Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system’s internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as external conditions change within some range. Feedback mechanisms can encourage (through positive feedback) or discourage (negative feedback) what is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)

**DCI.HS-ETS1.C.1**Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (tradeoffs) may be needed. (HS-ETS1-2)

**DCI.HS-ETS1.B.1**When evaluating solutions it is important to take into account a range of constraints including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts. (HS-ETS1-3)

**SEP.HS.B.1**Develop, revise, and/or use a model based on evidence to illustrate and/or predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

**SEP.HS.C.1**Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly.

**SEP.NOS.HS.A.3**Scientific inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that include: logical thinking, precision, open-mindedness, objectivity, skepticism, replicability of results, and honest and ethical reporting of findings.

**CCC.HS.D.2**Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions—including energy, matter, and information flows—within and between systems at different scales.

**CCC.HS.G.3**Feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or destabilize a system.

**CCC.STSE.HS.B.3**New technologies can have deep impacts on society and the environment, including some that were not anticipated.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.9**Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.6-8.8**Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.6**Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.4**Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.7**Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.5**Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.2**Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.6-8.9**Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.8**Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.

**D2.Eco.8.6-8**Explain how external benefits and costs influence market outcomes.

**D3.4.6-8**Develop claims and counterclaims while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both.

**D2.His.2.6-8**Classify series of historical events and developments as examples of change and/or continuity.

**D2.His.13.6-8**Evaluate the relevancy and utility of a historical source based on information such as maker, date, place of origin, intended audience, and purpose.

**D2.His.9.6-8**Classify the kinds of historical sources used in a secondary interpretation.

**D2.Geo.1.6-8**Construct maps to represent and explain the spatial patterns of cultural and environmental characteristics.

**D2.His.1.6-8**Analyze connections among events and developments in broader historical contexts.

**D2.Geo.2.6-8**Use maps, satellite images, photographs, and other representations to explain relationships between the locations of places and regions, and changes in their environmental characteristics.

**D3.2.6-8**Evaluate the credibility of a source by determining its relevance and intended use.

**D2.Geo.3.6-8**Use paper based and electronic mapping and graphing techniques to represent and analyze spatial patterns of different environmental and cultural characteristics.

**D2.His.6.6-8**Analyze how people’s perspectives influenced what information is available in the historical sources they created.

**D2.His.14.6-8**Explain multiple causes and effects of events and developments in the past.

**D2.Eco.1.6-8**Explain how economic decisions affect the well-being of individuals, businesses, and society.

**D4.5.6-8**Critique the structure of explanations.

**D2.His.3.6-8**Use questions generated about individuals and groups to analyze why they, and the developments they shaped, are seen as historically significant.

**D4.7.6-8**Assess their individual and collective capacities to take action to address local, regional, and global problems, taking into account a range of possible levers of power, strategies, and potential outcomes.

**D4.4.6-8**Critique arguments for credibility.

**D2.Eco.2.6-8**Evaluate alternative approaches or solutions to current economic issues in terms of benefits and costs for different groups and society as a whole.

**D4.8.6-8**Apply a range of deliberative and democratic procedures to make decisions and take action in their classrooms and schools, and in out-of-school civic contexts.

**D2.Civ.11.6-8**Differentiate among procedures for making decisions in the classroom, school, civil society, and local, state, and national government in terms of how civic purposes are intended.

## 8th & 9th Grade

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.8.1.a**Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.4**Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.8.2**Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.3**Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.8.4.a**Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.5**Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.3**Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.9-10.4**Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.6.1.c**

Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.8**Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.5**Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.

**AE.6.1.c**Plantean y responden a preguntas específicas con profundidad y detalle, al hacer comentarios que contribuyen al tema, texto o asunto que se discute.

**LH.6-8.8**Distinguen en un texto lo que es un hecho, una opinión y un juicio fundamentado en razones.

**LI.6.5**Analizan cómo una determinada oración, párrafo, capítulo o sección se ajusta a la estructura global de un texto y cómo contribuye al desarrollo de las ideas.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.F.A.2**Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions).

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.G.B.6**Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.G.B.7**Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.EE.A.1**Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.EE.B.5**Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.G.A.3**Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on two-dimensional figures using coordinates.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.NS.A.2**Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., π²).

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.SP.A.3**Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.F.A.3**Interpret the equation 𝘺 = 𝘮𝘹 + 𝘣 as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.F.B.4**Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (𝘹, 𝘺) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.F.A.1**Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.EE.B.6**Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation 𝘺 = 𝘮𝘹 for a line through the origin and the equation 𝘺 = 𝘮𝘹 + 𝘣 for a line intercepting the vertical axis at 𝘣.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.G.A.1.c**Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.SP.A.1**Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.EE.A.2**Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form 𝘹² = 𝘱 and 𝘹³ = 𝘱, where 𝘱 is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that √2 is irrational.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.NS.A.1**Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.SP.A.2**Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.EE.C.8.b**Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.G.B.8**Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.EE.C.7.b**Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.G.C.9**Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.EE.A.4**Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.SP.A.4**Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.G.A.5**Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.G.A.2**Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.EE.A.3**Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other.

**CCSS.Math.Content.8.F.B.5**Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

**HS-LS1-2****HS-LS1-3**Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.

**HS-ETS1-2****HS-ETS1-3****HS-LS1-2****HS-LS1-3**Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.

**HS-ETS1-2****HS-ETS1-3****DCI.HS-LS1.A.3**Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. (HS-LS1-2)

**DCI.HS-LS1.A.4**Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system’s internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as external conditions change within some range. Feedback mechanisms can encourage (through positive feedback) or discourage (negative feedback) what is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)

**DCI.HS-ETS1.C.1**Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (tradeoffs) may be needed. (HS-ETS1-2)

**DCI.HS-ETS1.B.1**When evaluating solutions it is important to take into account a range of constraints including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts. (HS-ETS1-3)

**SEP.HS.B.1**Develop, revise, and/or use a model based on evidence to illustrate and/or predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

**SEP.HS.C.1**Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly.

**SEP.NOS.HS.A.3**Scientific inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that include: logical thinking, precision, open-mindedness, objectivity, skepticism, replicability of results, and honest and ethical reporting of findings.

**CCC.HS.D.2**Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions—including energy, matter, and information flows—within and between systems at different scales.

**CCC.HS.G.3**Feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or destabilize a system.

**CCC.STSE.HS.B.3**New technologies can have deep impacts on society and the environment, including some that were not anticipated.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.9**Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.6-8.8**Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.6**Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.4**Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.7**Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.5**Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.2**Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.6-8.9**Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

**CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.6-8.8**Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.

**D2.Eco.8.6-8**Explain how external benefits and costs influence market outcomes.

**D3.4.6-8**Develop claims and counterclaims while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both.

**D2.His.2.6-8**Classify series of historical events and developments as examples of change and/or continuity.

**D2.His.13.6-8**Evaluate the relevancy and utility of a historical source based on information such as maker, date, place of origin, intended audience, and purpose.

**D2.His.9.6-8**Classify the kinds of historical sources used in a secondary interpretation.

**D2.Geo.1.6-8**Construct maps to represent and explain the spatial patterns of cultural and environmental characteristics.

**D2.His.1.6-8**Analyze connections among events and developments in broader historical contexts.

**D2.Geo.2.6-8**Use maps, satellite images, photographs, and other representations to explain relationships between the locations of places and regions, and changes in their environmental characteristics.

**D3.2.6-8**Evaluate the credibility of a source by determining its relevance and intended use.

**D2.Geo.3.6-8**Use paper based and electronic mapping and graphing techniques to represent and analyze spatial patterns of different environmental and cultural characteristics.

**D2.His.6.6-8**Analyze how people’s perspectives influenced what information is available in the historical sources they created.

**D2.His.14.6-8**Explain multiple causes and effects of events and developments in the past.

**D2.Eco.1.6-8**Explain how economic decisions affect the well-being of individuals, businesses, and society.

**D4.5.6-8**Critique the structure of explanations.

**D2.His.3.6-8**Use questions generated about individuals and groups to analyze why they, and the developments they shaped, are seen as historically significant.

**D4.7.6-8**Assess their individual and collective capacities to take action to address local, regional, and global problems, taking into account a range of possible levers of power, strategies, and potential outcomes.

**D4.4.6-8**Critique arguments for credibility.

**D2.Eco.2.6-8**Evaluate alternative approaches or solutions to current economic issues in terms of benefits and costs for different groups and society as a whole.

**D4.8.6-8**Apply a range of deliberative and democratic procedures to make decisions and take action in their classrooms and schools, and in out-of-school civic contexts.

**D2.Civ.11.6-8**Differentiate among procedures for making decisions in the classroom, school, civil society, and local, state, and national government in terms of how civic purposes are intended.